Posts tagged hoc html

4 Powerful Features of Javascript Programming Language

In the community of web developers and surfers, Javascript is highly popular as client side scripting language for web browsers. In any web application, javascript can be used to implement simple features like rollover of images as well as to make asynchronous requests to server using ajax. Few years back when flash was not so popular, javascript was widely used to add beautiful effects to webpages and is still being used for the same purpose. Let’s take a look at some of the features of this language.

1. Browser support

To access flash content, you need to install flash plugin in your browser. But to use javascript, you don’t have to use any plugin at all. This is because all browsers have accepted javascript as a scripting language for them and provides integrated support for it. All you need to do is to handle some of the tasks that are dependent on DOM (Document Object Model) of different browsers properly.

2. Can be used on client side as well as on server side

As javascript has access to Document object model of browser, you can actually change the structure of web pages at runtime. Due to this, javascript can be used to add different effects to webpages. On the other hand, javascript could be used on the server side as well. For example, in Alfresco which is a popular open source enterprise content management system, javascript is used in creating webscripts. This makes adding custom tasks to alfresco quite simple.

3. Functional programming language

In javascript, function could be assigned to variables just like any other data types. Not only that, but a function can accept another function as a parameter and can also return a function. You can have functions with no name as well. Clearly, this gives you the ability to code in functional programming style.

4. Support for objects

Javascript is an object oriented language. However, the way javascript handles objects and inheritance is bit different from conventional object oriented programming languages like Java. Due to this, javascript supports most of the object oriented concepts while being simple to learn and use.

These are some of the features that give javascript an ability to handle simple as well as complex tasks. Due to this, javascript has remained as the most popular programming language for a long time. It is also a good language for people who want to learn computer programming as it supports object oriented as well as function concepts and to use it, you just need a browser and a text editor.


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Headings, Bold, and Italic

Learn how to organize your text and create useful divisions of your Web pages using HTML heading tags. You can also change the look of your text with the bold and italic tags.


Heading tags are the simplest way to divide up your document. If you think of your site as a newspaper, then the headings are the headlines on the newspaper. The main headline is an h1 and subsequent headings are h2 through h6.

Use the following codes to create HTML that looks like the image above.

<h1>This is Heading 1</h1>
<h2>This is Heading 2</h2>
<h3>This is Heading 3</h3>
<h4>This is Heading 4</h4>
<h5>This is Heading 5</h5>
<h6>This is Heading 6</h6>

Some things to remember:

  • All browsers display headings differently
  • Try to keep your headings in a logical order
  • Headings put in line breaks for you, so you don’t have to worry about using <p> and <br> tags.

Bold and Italic

The bold and italic tags add interest to your text. Unlike some other HTML tags, they are meant to look the same on all browsers. Simply surround your text with the opening and closing tags (<strong> and </strong> for bold and <em> and </em> for italics).

You can nest these tags (which means that you can make text both bold and italic) and it doesn’t matter which is the external tag.

<strong>This text is bold</strong>
This text is bold
<em>This text is italicized</em>
This text is italicized
<strong><em>This text is both bold and italicized</em></strong>
This text is both bold and italicized

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Using HTML to Make Lists

There are three types of lists in HTML:

  • Ordered Lists
    These are sometimes called numbered lists, and list items that have a specific numerical order or ranking.
  • Unordered Lists
    These are sometimes called bulleted lists, because they have small bullet icons in front of the list items. They are for lists that don’t have a required order.
  • Definition Lists
    These are lists of items that have two parts, a term to be defined and the definition.

Ordered Lists

Use the <ol< tag (the ending </ol> tag is required), to create a numbered list with numbers starting at 1. The elements are created with the <li> tag (the ending </li> tag is not required in HTML, but required in XHTML). For example:


<li>Entry 1</li>

<li>Entry 2</li>

<li>Entry 3</li>


Use ordered lists anywhere you want to show a specific order for the list items to be followed, or to rank items sequentially. These lists are most often found in instructions and recipes.

Unordered Lists

Use the <ul> tag (the ending </ul> tag is required) to create a list with bullets instead of numbers. Just like with the ordered list, the elements are created with the <li> tag. For example:


<li>Entry 1</li>

<li>Entry 2</li>

<li>Entry 3</li>


Use unordered lists for any list that doesn’t have to be in a specific order. This is the most common type of list found on a Web page.

Definition Lists

Definition lists create a list with two parts to each entry: the name or term to be defined and the definition. This creates lists similar to a dictionary or glossary. There are three tags associated with the definition list:

  • <dl> to define the list
  • <dt> to define the definition term
  • <dd> to define the definition of the term

HTML does not require the closing tag for the <dt> or the <dd>, but it’s a good idea to use them so other parts of your design aren’t confused. And the ending tags are required in XHTML.

Here is how a definition list looks:


<dt>This is a definition term</dt>

<dd>And this is the definition</dd>

<dt>term 2</dt>

<dd>definition 2</dd>

<dt>term 3</dt>

<dd>definition 3</dd>


Use definition lists anywhere you have a list that has two parts to each item. The most common use is with a glossary of terms, but you can also use it for an address book (name is the term and the address is the definition), or an HTML form (field name is the term, input box is the definition), or for any list of name/value pairs.

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Writing HTML in Notepad

If you use Windows, you don’t need to buy or download an editor in order to write HTML. You have a perfectly functional editor built into your operating system — Notepad.

In fact, for many people this is all the HTML editor they will ever need.

There are only a few steps to creating a Web page with Notepad:

  1. Open Notepad
    Notepad is nearly always found in your “Accessories” menu.
  2. Start writing your HTML
    Remember that you need to be more careful than in an HTML editor. You won’t have elements like tag completion and validation.
  3. Save your HTML to a file
    This is the tricky part. Notepad normally saves files as .txt. But since you’re writing HTML, you need to save the file as .htm.

If you’re not careful, you’ll end up with a file named something like


Here’s how to avoid that:

  1. Click on “File” and then “Save As”
  2. Navigate to the folder you want to save in
  3. Change the “Save As Type” drop-down menu to “All Files (*.*)”
  4. Name your file, be sure to include the .htm extension e.g.

Remember HTML isn’t terribly hard to learn, and you needn’t buy any additional software or other items in order to put up your Web page. With Notepad, you can write complex or simple HTML and once you have learned the language, you can edit pages as quickly as someone with an expensive HTML editor.

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